Interpretation of universal testing machine features

With the progress of society, the increase of national strength, the emergence of new materials of various types, the performance of the original materials has been further improved, and the use of the surface has also been constantly expanding, so the inspection of materials has also put forward higher requirements. As we all know, before the 1980s, the use of material testing machines was limited to a few fields such as metal. Nowadays, the scope of use of material testing machines is no longer limited to metal and other fields. It has been extended to all industries. The material testing machine is dominated by the manual hydraulic testing machine in the past and developed to the present day, with multiple control modes coexisting, different performance characteristics, and a flourishing era. In this vast array of testing machines, how to choose a testing machine that is suitable for its own characteristics is what most users care about. As most of the current material tests are static performance tests, for this purpose, a simple comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of common universal testing machines on the market is presented below, and a selection principle is proposed for your reference. Bin instrument company technical reference).

First, the type of common universal material testing machine The common universal material testing machine currently on the market has two major series, four types:

1. Hydraulic Series: Manual Hydraulic Universal Material Testing Electro-hydraulic Servohydraulic Universal Material Testing Machine 2. Electronic Universal Series: Conventional Electronic Universal Material Testing Machines High-performance electronic universal material testing machines have different performances and advantages and disadvantages. User groups.

Second, performance characteristics 1, hydraulic series 1) manual hydraulic universal material testing machine manual hydraulic universal material testing machine mainly uses a simple high-pressure oil source as a power source, manually adjust the valve as a control element, and manual manual load, therefore, it belongs Open-loop control system. Because of the restriction of oil flow and the structure of the main engine, its stroke of the cylinder piston is relatively small. Commonly it is about 300mm, and its test speed is generally small. Affected by price factors, force sensors generally use pressure sensors (basically pressure sensors for large tonnages). Therefore, the accuracy is low, the range is small, the general accuracy is 1 or 2, the range is generally 4% -100% FS affected by the friction of the fuel tank, the tonnage is generally very difficult to achieve very small, the domestic minimum is 5T. Because of its unique characteristics of low prices and large tonnages, it is still in heavy use in the inspection of finished products and testing of single material indicators.

2) Electro-hydraulic Servo Universal Testing Machine It mainly adopts precise high-pressure oil source as power source, and uses servo valve or proportional valve as control element to perform closed-loop automatic control, so the control performance is high, generally can achieve load, strain, displacement Three control modes. Like the manual hydraulic universal material testing machine, his test speed is lower due to the limitation of the oil flow. Due to the closed-loop automatic control, the stiffness of the system becomes the key to the normal operation of the entire system. As we all know, the stiffness of the liquid is relatively low. In order to reduce the influence of the liquid on the stiffness of the entire machine as much as possible, the stroke of the electro-hydraulic servo tester is not large, and it is also affected by the rigidity of the entire machine. The electro-hydraulic servo type testing machine is The tonnage can't be done very small, basically more than a ton. However, because it has a variety of control modes, it has the characteristics of flexible use and high performance.

2. Electronic universal series 1) Conventional electronic universal material testing machine The conventional electronic universal uses servo motor as the power source. The screw and the nut are used as the executing parts to realize the speed control of the moving beam of the testing machine. Its test speed range can be carried out. Adjustment, taking RGM-200 as an example, its test speed can reach 0.001mm/min-1000mm/min, the speed ratio can reach as much as 1,000,000 times, and the test stroke can be set according to the need, and the maximum can reach several meters. This is not achievable by the hydraulic tester anyway. With the development of electronic technology and the improvement of the performance of servo motors, the motors used in electronic universals have adopted AC servo motors from the early DC servo motors to the present, and thyristors have been used for phase-shift triggering from the early power components. By adopting a variety of power modules to achieve pulse width modulation control today, the performance of electronic universals has undergone a qualitative leap, and people's minds have experienced a high rate of electronic universal failures and poor performance has ceased to exist. Due to the conventional electronic universal adoption of speed control, the requirement for system stiffness is not high, thus creating favorable conditions for the realization of the small tonnage testing machine. Judging from the current international and domestic situation, the testing machine below one tonne is basically a conventional electronic universal testing machine. It is the most versatile and cost-effective.

2) High-performance electronic universal testing machine Like the conventional electronic universal testing machine, the high-performance electronic universal testing machine also uses a servo motor as a power source. The screw and the nut are used as the executing parts, and it is a conventional electronic universal testing machine. The difference is that its control method can be load control, or it can be strain control or displacement control. In addition to the wide speed and large stroke of the conventional electronic universal, it also has all the advantages of the electro-hydraulic servo testing machine, so it is currently the best universal material testing machine. At present, the leader of this kind of testing machine basically uses the EDC120 series produced by German company Doli as the core control component. For example, the RG2000 series produced by Regal Corporation uses the EDC120 controller. Of course, this kind of testing machine also has its disadvantages. Due to the three control modes of load, strain, and displacement, the stability of the entire machine has a direct relationship with the stiffness of the system, and the stiffness of the sample directly affects the stiffness of the system. Therefore, when there are many types of specimens to be tested, the stiffness of the whole machine will change greatly, and it is difficult to ensure that all the tests can be performed normally. In order to satisfy all the tests, it is necessary to adjust the parameters of the control system (P, I, D parameters) at any time. This is difficult for those who are not automatic control professionals, and thus it cannot be fully used. Class testing machine advantages. The price of this kind of testing machine is relatively high.

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