High-yield cultivation techniques of oyster mushroom

The shape of the mushroom is similar to that of the oyster mushroom, but the stem is long and the cap is small. The diameter of the mushroom cap is 0.8-2.5 cm, and the stipe length is 4 cm. The small fruiting body of the mushroom, but the non-Pleurotus ostreatus naturally occurs, is cultivated by special strains under special conditions.

The mushroom has rich nutritional value. Compared with the oyster mushroom, it has higher protein content, crude fiber content, phosphorus and calcium content, and amino acid content. Now introduce its high-yield cultivation techniques as follows:

I. Biological characteristics of the mushroom

1. Nutrition. The oyster mushroom is a saprophytic fungus with strong ability to decompose lignin and cellulose. In artificial cultivation, wood chips, cottonseed hulls, corn cobs, straw and wheat straw are used as main nutrients, and nitrogen-rich nutrients such as bran, rice bran, and corn flour are used to produce a matrix. In addition, a small amount of gypsum and lime should be added to supplement mineral elements such as calcium and adjust pH.

Experiments with diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source showed that the addition of 0.5% nitrogen nutrient could increase the yield of Pleurotus ostreatus, but with the increase of the amount of diammonium phosphate, the success rate of the bacteria was reduced on the one hand, and even on the other hand. The bacteria bag, the primordium formed is too dense, the stipe is black, and there are many malformed mushrooms, which is not conducive to increasing the yield and the rate of commercial mushrooms.

2. Temperature. The growth temperature of the mycelium of the mushroom is from 3 °C to 37 °C, and the suitable growth temperature is from 16 °C to 30 °C. When the temperature is higher than 37 °C or lower than 10 °C, the mycelial growth rate is slowed down. The temperature range of primordium formation and fruiting body growth and development is from 3 °C to 33 °C. With the increase of shed temperature, the fruiting bodies develop rapidly, but the high-temperature differentiated fruiting bodies are lightly colored and the bacterium is loose, slightly managed. Week, it will cause the cap to be too large and the stipe is too long and bending deformation, and the commerciality is declining; on the contrary, the growth at low temperature is slow, the response to the external factor changes is delayed, and the fruit body is more solid and fat, more in line with the mushroom. Commodity requirements. According to the law of shed temperature and material temperature correlation, the suitable temperature range for growth of oyster mushroom is 6 °C ~ 20 °C, and the optimum temperature is 6 °C ~ 12 °C. In addition, primordium formation requires a temperature difference stimulation of 5 ° C to 12 ° C. It can be seen that the mushroom is a kind of low temperature and temperature-changing fungus, which is suitable for mushrooming in autumn to spring.

3. Moisture. The suitable water content of the mycelial growth medium of Myzus persicae is 60%-65%. When the water content in the culture material is less than 50%, the mycelial growth rate is slowed down, and the amount of the mushroom is reduced. When the water content is higher than 70% The permeability of the culture material is lowered, and the growth rate of the mycelium is slowed down. During the growth and development of fruiting bodies, the relative humidity of the air needs to be in a constant range of 85% to 95% in order to grow normally, especially in the stage of mushroom bud formation. At this time, when the wind blows and damps, the original base is easily wilted.

4. Air. Shimeji is an aerobic fungus. Both mycelial growth and fruiting body growth and development require oxygen. During the growth of mycelium, the culture material and the charging container are required to be permeable. During the growth and development of the fruiting body, a large amount of oxygen is consumed on the one hand, and high and balanced on the other hand. Carbon dioxide concentration. The effect of carbon dioxide on the mushroom body varies with the developmental period. The suitable carbon dioxide concentration in the mulberry period is 0.05%-0.1%; the coral period is 0.07%-0.15%, and the elongation period is 0.1%-0.25%. Excessive carbon dioxide will also cause primordial bulging, small pleats and stalk cover imbalance.

5. Light. The growth stage of the mycelium of the oyster mushroom does not require light, and the growth rate of the mycelium is slowed down under the condition of light. The primordium formation of the fruiting body and the growth and development of the fruiting body require 10 to 200 lux of scattered light. The fruiting body of the genus Pleurotus ostreatus has a directional light, and it is easy to cause the light to bend when irradiated with one side light for a long time, so uniform scattered light or light irritating in the opposite direction is necessary. The light also has the effect of improving the commercial traits. This is achieved by increasing the temperature by light. The temperature is too low for a long time, the stipe becomes water-soaked, and the cap is frosty white. At this time, the proper light can be improved. Under the conditions of complete darkness, the mushroom cannot be produced, and even if the mushroom grows, it will become a mushroom with only a sterile handle of the stipe or a malformed mushroom.

6. pH. The oyster mushroom is an acid-loving fungus, and the suitable pH value of the mycelial growth culture material is 6 to 6.5. Since the pH of the culture material is decreased during the growth of the mycelium, the pH of the culture material is lowered. Therefore, when the culture material is prepared, lime is added to raise the pH of the culture material to about 8°. In addition, increasing the pH of the culture material is also beneficial to prevent bacterial infection.

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